Internal/External Validity: the Control of Independent, Dependent, and Extraneous Variables in Laboratory or Field Experiments.

  1. Internal Validity, External Validity
  2. Independent, Dependent, and Extraneous Variables
  3. Laboratory or Field Experiments

The internal validity is usually a mess, especially in the education research field, partially because of the extreme complexity regarding human brains and minds; partially because of a variety of different context and goals education could have. The problem not only lies in the control of independent or dependent part, but most seriously in the extraneous variables that are literally uncontrollable or even unnoticeable in the education field. Worse yet, to overcome this intrinsic complexity issue, the only way is to go big and make use of the large sample size to balance the uncontrollable bias. As a result, people go field experiments for more samples at lower cost, and in turn further worsen the internal validity.

In my research, we utilize the power of information technology. By moving the whole class online, we are able to track much more detailed information, especially the learning behavior information–which is of much higher quality compared to academic test or survey when it comes to scientific research. In my humble opinion, this is actually the beginning of a phenomenal revolution that opens a brand new door for education researchers to get to the truth.

Equality Vs Equity

the4thBox — Center for Story-based Strategy
https://www.psychologytoday.com/us/blog/unseen-and-unheard/201903/inequality-equality-and-equity

你喜歡哪個呢?選 Liberation 的人,恐怕要等到機器人統治世界後,所有資源都降到幾乎不用成本時(也就是圍籬不見了),才能實現。Egalitarianism (平等主義)嚮往的世界是 Equity,然而,在真實世界的 Equity 理論實踐造成了人們懶墯,導致了均貧的狀態。而在現代的社會,主流正義是努力做到 equality,起點平等。然而,下面的影片解釋了「起點平等」本質上也是有問題的:

Statistical Learning, Portl, Thorndike’s Puzzle Box

This PORTL experiment is much like the Thorndike’s Cat
The cat learn by trial & error
statistical learning might be the mechanism behind, which claims the target memory is recorded along with timestamp and recalled through calculation of the frequency inside our brain.