Ethos, Pathos, Logos & Canons

EPL 三大元素,在英語寫作的 Rhetoric (修辭學) 裡是必學經典,甚至融入於美國中小學的寫作課程當中。

EPL 由希臘哲學家開始,也僅僅只有希臘哲學探討……,本片陳述「classic rhetoric」,相當深入且精彩!!以下為筆記:


  • Ethos (intrinsic/extrinsic)
    • Intelligence => appear to be credible
    • Integrity => good/honest with fairness and consistency–always doing the right thing.
    • Goodwill => have the listeners’ best interests at heart.
  • Pathos: To get the audience emotional involved.
    • Rhetorical questions
    • Audience-related example
    • Create a scene in the audience’s mind
  • Logos: make sense
    • Exposition => clarify/analyze evidence
    • Argumentation => inductive/deductive reasoning

除了EPL之外,Rhetoric 還有五大準則 (canons)

  • Invention => audience/topic/purpose/thesis/main points/supports/research
  • Arrangement => clear/memorable
  • Style => figurative language (trope/figure of speech), and diction ( clear/memorable/unbias as not to offend)
  • Memory => preparation and notes.
  • Delivery => verbal/nonverbal

Aristotle 的得意門生,精通 Rhetoric 的亞歷山大帝演說,此句的 style 相當精彩:”This is what my father Philip did for you, great enough on it’s own, but small compared to what you’ve gained from me”

馮翊綱老師談到 Aristotle 給 Alexander 的一段經典語錄。