廣泛閱讀/視聽 (Extensive Reading/Viewing) 的有效性及效率 (Effectiveness / Efficiency)

Krashen 在 2003 曾說:“Free voluntary reading [extensive reading] may be the most powerful tool we have in language education. In fact, it appears to be too good to be true… with a strong impact on reading, comprehension, vocabulary, grammar, and writing” (p. 15) 然而,廣泛閱讀的有用性,在亞洲廣泛地被老師和大眾質疑,尤其是台灣。他們認為,廣泛閱讀不足以幫助學習者在「考試導向」並且高度競爭的教育制度下存活。換句話說,重要的不止是有效,更要有效率才行!針對這個看法,其實已有相當多的研究成果支持廣泛閱讀及視聽,整理如下。

Wang 2013 年時問了 Krashen 這個問題,他的回答是:“I have no advice on dealing with colleagues but here is an idea that might help parents: Offer a free intermediate advanced English class taught using comprehensible input methodology. Then they will see for themselves” (p. 26)。事實上,廣泛閱讀已經被廣泛地研究過,且被證實相當有效果及效率 (Mason & Krashen 2017; see also Iwahori, 2008; McLean & Rouault, 2017; Waring & Takaki, 2003)。至於考試相關的擔憂,Mason (2006, 2011) 研究指出,中等程度的成人學習者 (intermediate adult) 僅僅使用廣泛閱讀,沒有任何課程或者學習者自學過程,就能讓學習者在 TOEFL and TOEIC 大幅度進步。此外,Aka (2019) 更針對 405 個高中生做了一年的研究發現,利用 extensive reading 的做法,學生在文法和單字的進步,比在傳統課程裡的學生還要多很多(驚人的是,傳統課程裡教的就是文法和單字)。附圖即為 Aka 論文裡的研究成果。


此外,更有證據顯示廣泛閱讀是「低學習成就&低學習動機」學習者的靈丹妙藥。Mason and Krashen (1997) 指出, “Extensive reading allowed ‘reluctant’ students of EFL to catch up to traditional students, and worked in a variety of EFL situations.” (p. 101)。這個令人興奮的發現在其他許多研究裡也都有類似的報告 (Jeon & Day, 2016; McLean & Rouault, 2017; Nishizawa et al., 2010)。在教育領域,這其實是非常重要的優點。因為在英語教室裡,低學習成就相當常見,而且除了非常昂貴的方法(如家教或者全美語教學),幾乎沒有教育方法能有效地幫助他們。

廣泛閱讀的擁護者們在21世紀初開始探索廣泛聽力(extensive listening)的做法,他們對廣泛閱讀的知識體做出了一些有價值的貢獻。例如,因為EFL學習者無法在腦子裡「聽到」英語發音,Stephens (2011) 指出:“Extensive reading without extensive listening is arguably counterproductive” (p. 311). 後來,隨著資訊科技的進步,廣泛視聽(extensive viewing)出現並且大量被研究,其有效性及效率也都被證實了 (Ivone & Renandya, 2019; Feng & Webb, 2020; Pujadas & Muñoz, 2019; Rodgers & Webb, 2020; Webb, 2015)。

實務上來說,技術建構教學法在一開始的時候效果會比較好,然而研究發現,語言取得教學法則是在一年以上的研究中大大地勝出 (Grabe, 2009; Krashen, 2005; Nakanishi, 2015)。在兩種教學法的關係圖中,注意語言取得教學法起步較慢的現像可能會是個推廣上的大問題。

Reference

Aka, N. (2019). Reading Performance of Japanese High School Learners Following a One-Year Extensive Reading Program. Reading in a foreign language, 31(1), 1-18.

Feng, Y., & Webb, S.. (2020). LEARNING VOCABULARY THROUGH READING, LISTENING, AND VIEWING. WHICH MODE OF INPUT IS MOST EFFECTIVE? Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 42(3), 499–523. https://doi.org/10.1017/s0272263119000494

Grabe, W. (2009). Reading in a second language: Moving from theory to practice. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.

Ivone, F. M., & Renandya, W. A. (2019). Extensive listening and viewing in ELT. Teflin Journal, 30(2), 237-256.

Iwahori, Y. (2008). Developing reading fluency: A study of extensive reading in EFL. Reading in a Foreign Language, 20(1), 70-91

Jeon, E. Y., & Day, R. R. (2016). The effectiveness of ER on reading proficiency: A meta-analysis. Reading in a Foreign Language, 28(2), 246–265

Krashen, S. (2003). Explorations in language acquisition and use: The Taipei lectures. Portsmouth, N.H.: Heinemann.

Krashen, S. (2005). Free voluntary reading: New research, applications, and controversies. In G.Poediosoedarmo (Ed.), Innovative approaches to reading & writing instruction,anthology series, 46 (pp. 1-9). Republic of Singapore: SEAMEO Regional Language Centre.

Mason, B. (2006). Free voluntary reading and autonomy in second language acquisition: Improving TOEFL scores from reading alone. International Journal of Foreign Language Teaching, 2(1), 2–5.

Mason, B. (2011). Impressive gains on the TOEIC after one year of comprehensible input, with no output or grammar study. The International Journal of Foreign Language Teaching, 7(1), 1-5.

Mason, B., & Krashen, S. (1997). Extensive reading in English as a foreign language. System, 25(1), 91-102.

Mason, B., & Krashen, S. (2017). Self-selected reading and TOEIC performance: Evidence from case histories. Shitennoji University Bulletin, 63, 469-475.

McLean, S., & Rouault, G. (2017). The effectiveness and efficiency of extensive reading at developing reading rates. System, 70, 92-106.

Nakanishi, T. (2015). A meta‐analysis of extensive reading research. Tesol Quarterly, 49(1), 6-37.

Nishizawa, H., Yoshioka, T., & Itoh, K. (2010). Kougyoukei gakusei no nigate isiki wokokuhuku si jiritu gakushuu e michibiku eigo tadoku jugyou [An extensive reading program that changes reluctant engineering students into autonomous learners of English]. Journal of JSEE, 58(3), 12‒17. https://doi.org/10.1541/ieejfms.126.556

Renandya, W. A., & Farrell, T. S. (2011). ‘Teacher, the tape is too fast!’Extensive listening in ELT. ELT journal, 65(1), 52-59.

Rodgers, M. P., & Webb, S. (2020). Incidental vocabulary learning through viewing television. ITL-International Journal of Applied Linguistics, 171(2), 191-220.

Scherer, R., Siddiq, F., & Tondeur, J. (2019). The technology acceptance model (TAM): A meta-analytic structural equation modeling approach to explaining teachers’ adoption of digital technology in education. Computers & Education, 128, 13-35.

Stephens, M. (2011). The primacy of extensive listening. ELT journal, 65(3), 311-313.

Wang, M. (2013). Dr. Stephen Krashen answers questions on the comprehension hypothesis extended. LANGUAGE TEACHER, 37, 4.

Waring, R. (2008). Starting extensive listening. Extensive reading in Japan, 1(1), 7-9.

Waring, R., & Takaki, M. (2003). At what rate do learners learn and retain new vocabulary from reading a graded reader? Reading in a Foreign Language, 15(2)Webb, S. (2015). Extensive viewing: Language learning through watching television. In Language learning beyond the classroom (pp. 175-184). Routledge.