- Internal Validity, External Validity
- Independent, Dependent, and Extraneous Variables
- Laboratory or Field Experiments
The internal validity is usually a mess, especially in the education research field, partially because of the extreme complexity regarding human brains and minds; partially because of a variety of different context and goals education could have. The problem not only lies in the control of independent or dependent part, but most seriously in the extraneous variables that are literally uncontrollable or even unnoticeable in the education field. Worse yet, to overcome this intrinsic complexity issue, the only way is to go big and make use of the large sample size to balance the uncontrollable bias. As a result, people go field experiments for more samples at lower cost, and in turn further worsen the internal validity.
In my research, we utilize the power of information technology. By moving the whole class online, we are able to track much more detailed information, especially the learning behavior information–which is of much higher quality compared to academic test or survey when it comes to scientific research. In my humble opinion, this is actually the beginning of a phenomenal revolution that opens a brand new door for education researchers to get to the truth.