“That” Omitting, 分詞構句, 不定詞開頭

概念上是「say」一件事的時候,可以刪去 「that」,常見有:”say,” “think,” “know,” “claim,” “hear,” or “believe.”,這些字被稱為 bridge verb

  • The children claimed an ice cream break would help them study more effectively.
  • She insisted she wasn’t responsible for the houseplant’s untimely death.

不能刪去的狀況:


  • She said that although the sunrise workout sounded like a brilliant idea, sleeping in also sounded good.( 後面接了Correlative Conjunctions
  • The notion that their project would be finished by the original deadline was laughable. (後面接了「同位語」
  • The kids also said this morning that a television break would enhance their studying. ( 中間有插副詞時
  • She admitted begrudgingly that she might have contributed to the plant’s demise. (中間有插副詞時
  • He enthusiastically declared that he would stop procrastinating tomorrow. (你想強調中斷語氣時

改用 which:

  • The first kindergarten class that all 31 students attended was miraculously free of mishaps. ( that 用於修前字,表「第一個31個同學都沒事的班級」,也就是說,這不是第一個班級,而是第一個有31個同學都沒事的班級,其實也就是 which 的限定用法
  • The first kindergarten class, which all 31 students attended, was miraculously free of mishaps. ( 逗號 which 修前句,表「第一個班級全都沒事,附帶一提,他們有31個同學」,也就是說,這是真的第一個班級,其實也就是 which 的非限定用法

分詞構句開頭:

  • Barking fiercely, the dog is trying to get away. (Ving置前,是when/because the dog bark 的簡寫。
  • When barking fiercely, the dog coughed once and twice.(留下 when 強調在那段時間,有時用 while 更好
  • After knowing about it, we can only sigh helplessly(留下 after 強調時間先後
  • Not knowing when she would come, I waited for two hours.(否定開頭
  • Barked at like that, I let the dog get away right away. (Vpp 前置,是when/because I am barked at like that 的簡寫
  • Having being barked at for an hour, I finally let the dog leave.( when/because I have been barked at for… 的簡寫

一般分詞構句

  • Tammy is a lovely girl smiling all the time. ( who smiles 省略
  • Sally is the dog fostered by Tom.( which is fostered by 省略
  • Kevin is the boy they talked about. ( who they talked about 省略

Ref.

https://www.quickanddirtytips.com/education/grammar/when-to-delete-that